And that decline has been steady since the recession began in 2007, causing some state legislators to pay new attention to their education budgets.
“In 2010, in the middle of a massive economic recession, all state governments were deep in the red,” said John Ahlquist, a University of California San Diego professor who specializes in labor movements. “Cuts were going to be made. The question was: Who was going to absorb the cuts?”
Times have changed, Ahlquist said, and the country is now close to full employment. However, expectations of public sector employees have stayed the same and they have seen no wage increases to compensate them. State education budgets throughout the country have steadily decreased since 2008, according to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
That leaves teachers to continue to suffer financially and professionally. Meanwhile, experts add that state oversight of schools is growing and teachers say their pay is increasingly tied to state testing performance.
“We’re seeing teachers reaching the end of their rope,” said Ben Yoder, a music educator in Indiana, where teacher pay has seen the steepest decline since 2000. “When you cut off and starve public education, make it difficult for teachers to do their job and make it a demoralizing, de-professionalized career, you start to see teachers at state capitols.”
Teachers across the country cited accountability pressures, a lack of administrative support, and a dissatisfaction with the career and working conditions to be the reason many of them have decided to quit.
And prospective teachers have taken notice, as the number of new teachers continues to dwindle.
“It’s hard to become a teacher because there’s no money to help you get through school so you’ll have to take on loans, you’re going to earn less and — if you come in without the training — you’re not likely to survive,” said Darling-Hammond.
That might be one reason why the number of people pursuing the teaching profession has plummeted. Enrollment in teacher preparation programs nationwide dropped 39 percent between 2010 and 2014 — from more than 680,000 people for the 2010-11 academic year to fewer than 420,000 for the 2014-15 academic year.
Interest in Teach for America dwindled in recent years as well, as their application pool fell from 57,000 in 2013 to 37,000 in 2016. That then caused the program to shrink overall, dropping from 5,800 Teach for America educators in 2014 to 3,500 in 2017.
“It’s not a lifestyle a professional would want,” said Geraldine Bender, the president of the Mississippi chapter of American Federation of Teachers. “A lot of teachers will get a second job because they have children they have to take care of. On this salary, you can’t get ahead, you can’t make financial plans.”
There’s a critical teacher shortage in the Mississippi Delta, one of the poorest regions in the nation, but education leaders say that the entire state faces high turnover and low retention, as well as shrinking recruiting classes.
The Mississippi Department of Education found that more than a quarter of its school districts suffer from a critical teacher shortage. To try to rectify the situation, the state has attempted to circumvent teacher licensing or lower standards.
A recent proposal in the statehouse would have allowed teaching candidates who only scored an 18 on the ACT, which has a max score of 36, and earned a 2.75 GPA in the subject area they want to teach. That bill died in committee.
Some states’ unwillingness to pay for an academically proven workforce has their teachers running for the border.
“If we had better teacher pay, we would have a better chance of keeping teachers in Mississippi,” said Joyce Helmick, president of the Mississippi Education Association. “Right now, they can go across the state line, they can teach in Tennessee and get paid $5,000 to $10,000 more. In Arkansas, Louisiana, Alabama, they get paid more.”
“Mississippi is not that big across, so you can live in the center and drive a distance to get paid more money,” she added.
And there’s data to support the idea that the prospect of a pay increase helps keep teachers in classrooms. According to the Learning Policy Institute study, districts where teachers could expect to one day earn around $78,000 had a turnover rate that was 31 percent lower than those districts where salaries maxed out at less than $60,000.
Dr. Laura Hamack serves as the superintendent of Brown County Schools in Indiana, a district where she started her teaching career 22 years ago. She said that the supportive culture surrounding education that buoyed her as a young educator has largely disappeared and left teachers “really beat up.”
Ten years ago, she said, her rural school district in Indiana would receive more than 200 applications for an open position. Now teaching posts at her schools remain empty indefinitely as people leave the career field and young people aren’t inspired by the job prospects.
“It sounds cliché, but [teachers are] fundamentally helping the next generation learn to read,” Hamack said. “Their responsibility is huge, so I do really worry that they will become so disconnected from their mission that they walk away from the profession. I’m really quite concerned about that.”
Belarus: Tens of thousands march through Minsk against President Lukashenko as hackers leak police details | World News
Tens of thousands of people marched through the Belarusian capital Minsk on Sunday, calling for the resignation of president Alexander Lukashenko in the sixth straight weekend of protests.
It comes as hackers leaked the personal details of more than 1,000 senior police officers, pledging that “no one will remain anonymous, even under a balaclava” amid reports of violent crackdowns targeting the protesters.
At least 10 people were detained on Sunday, according to Russian news agency TASS, which quoted a police spokesperson.
Local media organisations shared videos showing the security forces wearing helmets and balaclavas dragging demonstrators off the streets.
On Saturday, more than 390 women demonstrating in Minsk were arrested, including an elderly woman who has become a symbol of the protests.
The unrest began following the 9 August presidential election which many Belarusians believe Mr Lukashenko, a former Soviet collective farm manager, fraudulently won.
Mr Lukashenko has been president in Belarus for 26 years, during which time he has consistently suppressed political opposition.
He has resisted the calls to resign, sometimes appearing carrying an automatic rifle, and buoyed by support from the Russian president Vladimir Putin.
Weeks ago the European Union vowed to impose sanctions on Minsk for alleged election fraud and human rights abuses, but it is now expected to miss its Monday deadline for action.
Thousands of people have been detained during the protests, many of whom have reported being beaten and tortured while detained – although the government denies these claims.
“As the arrests continue, we will continue to publish data on a massive scale,” the hackers told opposition news channel Nexta.
The details include the names of the senior officers, as well their surnames, patronyms – common in Russian-speaking countries – as well as their dates of birth, parent units, ranks and positions.
The government said it would find and punish whoever was responsible for leaking the data on police officers, which was distributed over the popular chat app Telegram on Saturday.
“The forces, means and technologies at the disposal of the internal affairs bodies make it possible to identify and prosecute the overwhelming majority of those guilty of leaking personal data on the internet,” said Olga Chemodanova, a spokesperson for the Belarusian minister of internal affairs.
Opposition leader Svetlana Tikhanovskaya praised the women’s march in a video statement from Lithuania, where she fled after being held inside a government electoral office following the election.
Speaking to Sky News, Mrs Tikhanovskaya said she was not yet ready to talk about what happened to her during the time she was held in custody.
It is thought she was threatened with being separated from her two young children, whom she had already moved to Lithuania.
“They have frightened and put pressure on women for the second month, but despite this, Belarusians are continuing their peaceful protest and showing their amazing fortitude,” Mrs Tikhanovskaya said of Saturday’s march.
The Belarusian government reacted angrily to reports that Mrs Tikhanovskaya could soon meet EU foreign ministers.
Foreign ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova criticised the EU, accusing Brussels of attempting to “rock the boat” in Belarus – seen by Moscow as a strategic buffer against the EU and NATO.
Russia has accused the US of fomenting revolution in Minsk, and agreed to give a $1.5bn (£1.16bn) loan to prop up Mr Lukashenko’s government following a meeting with Mr Putin.
Belarus will spend $330m (£255m) of the money it has received to cover its outstanding debt to the Russian gas giant Gazprom, according to Russian finance minister Anton Siluanov.
Coronavirus: Only one in 10 to be protected from COVID-19 in first year of vaccine use | UK News
Just one in 10 of the world’s population is likely to be protected against COVID-19 in the first year of a vaccine being made available, experts have told Sky News.
Analysis of global manufacturing capacity shows just two billion doses could be made in 2021, even if a vaccine was given the green light by safety regulators at the start of the year.
But with seven of the nine prototype vaccines in late-stage clinical trials requiring two doses, that’s likely to be enough to immunise only a little over 12% of the 7.8 billion people who need it.
Dr Cleo Kontoravdi, associate professor of chemical engineering at Imperial College London, told Sky News: “We have to be clear that in the first instance not everybody will have access to the vaccine. We do not have the manufacturing capacity.”
Calculations by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations show that even if manufacturing capacity doubled, as planned, over the next 12 months less than half the world’s population could be protected by the end of 2022.
It could mean some travel restrictions and social distancing will be needed for years to come, unless there is a game-changing advance in vaccine technology that speeds up production.
But making large amounts of vaccine is just one of many hurdles that will need to be overcome in the months ahead.
One of the biggest bottlenecks is traditionally at the “fill and finish” stage of production, when the vaccine is put in glass vials, labelled and packaged.
It needs several supply chains to converge seamlessly, with the final product meeting high quality standards. Any hiccup can cause delays.
Sky News was given access to Wockhardt’s plant in Wrexham, where a high-speed production line has been bought up by the government to produce a finished vaccine over the next 18 months.
Preparations are being made to start production of the Oxford vaccine as soon as November. Between two and three million vials, each containing eight doses, could be produced every month.
Ravi Limaye, Wockhardt’s UK managing director, said the vials will be quarantined until the vaccine is approved by safety regulators – but will have to be destroyed if for any reason it’s turned down.
“This is a risk that one has to take considering the enormity of this pandemic,” he said.
“This is an unprecedented step taken by the government in the interest of the UK to get the vaccine ready so that if it is approved by regulators it can be used straight away.
“It is a risk but a calculated risk.”
‘Down with feudalism’: Activists lay plaque in defiance of Thai king | World News
They promised a dawn surprise, and in Bangkok, anti-government protesters ushered it in to the chorus of a pneumatic drill.
Below the skirt of a tent, we watched them chip away at a square of concrete in front of the country’s Grand Palace.
Into it they laid a plaque which declared that Thailand belongs to the people.
It’s the latest challenge to the monarchy by a series of pro-democracy demonstrations which have been happening almost daily since July.
Many of Sunday’s crowd have been there all night, after attending a massive demonstration on Saturday which the organisers claim attracted 100,000 supporters – while Thai authorities claimed the turnout was around 20,000.
“Down with feudalism, long live the people,” the protesters chanted, before lining up to buy their own miniature metal versions of the plaque, which sold out in minutes.
The plaque resembles one commemorating the end of absolute monarchy in 1932.
In 2017, after King Maha Vajiralongkorn took the throne, it mysteriously disappeared from outside one of the royal palaces.
It was replaced by one bearing a pro-monarchist slogan.
Until recently, open criticism of the monarchy was unheard of in Thailand, which has strict defamation laws concerning the royal family.
Anyone found guilty of breaching them could face up to 15 years in jail.
But some of the movement’s leaders have been breaking this taboo.
As well as reform of the monarchy, they want new elections, a new constitution and the prime minister to step down.
Today, they went further, leading the crowd to present a petition of their demands, addressed to the king.
As the convoy snaked its way towards the Grand Palace, it was stopped by a line of unarmed police.
People had been warned to avoid clashes and as officers and protesters faced off at the barriers, student activist Panusaya “Rung” Sithijirawattanakul made her way through the masses to give their letter to Bangkok’s police chief.
They hope it will be passed on to the king who is currently abroad.
“We have now proved that even an ordinary citizen can communicate with the king, with the monarch, directly,” student leader Parit ‘Penguin’ Chiwarak told me.
If their demands go unanswered, they have said they’ll escalate their movement.
The Royal Palace was not immediately available for comment.
Government spokesperson Anucha Burapachaisri told me, ahead of the weekend’s gatherings: “We encourage people to come forward if they have any issues at the moment to discuss. But we will try to avoid any kind of confrontation and we will try to facilitate in terms of discussion in a constructive way.”
Demonstrators say they will gather again on Thursday.
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