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Does Trump have the power to send National Guard troops to the border?

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President Donald Trump announced this week he was sending the National Guard to the U.S.-Mexico border to fight illegal immigration, signing a proclamation Wednesday that invokes a part of the U.S. Code called Title 32 to do so.

Rep. Ted Lieu, D-Calif., argued Thursday that this wasn’t actually sending members of the National Guard to the border, but rather a request for states to do so.

Does Trump have the authority to deploy the National Guard himself? Here’s how it’s worked before.

How do you send troops to the border?

The military has no legal mandate to deal with immigration issues, but there are two ways for the federal government to use the National Guard to enhance its efforts. Under U.S. Code Title 10, the one Lieu cited in his tweet, National Guard troops are federally funded and their movements controlled by the secretary of defense. Under U.S. Code Title 32, the one Trump used as a basis for his proclamation, the troops are federally funded but remain under state control, sent at the behest of that state’s governor.

President Barack Obama and President George W. Bush both used Title 32 to send National Guard forces to the border during their administrations. In addition, Title 10 has for decades been used to federally fund military groups fighting transnational gangs that attempt to cross U.S. borders, according to a 2012 Government Accountability Office report.

Is there a reason for choosing Title 32 over Title 10?

Definitely. Title 32 broadens the scope of what National Guard personnel can do at the border.

Title 10 federalizes the National Guard, which means those troops are prohibited from enforcing domestic laws by the Posse Comitatus Act (PCA). The PCA bars military forces from getting involved with domestic issues like immigration. They can only take a support role when it comes to domestic issues, tackling work like training or loaning and operating equipment, as well as certain counterdrug and counterterrorism efforts.

State National Guard personnel are not subject to the PCA, so in 2004, Congress passed a law that past administrations have used to allow the federal government to fund National Guard troops participating in border security operations in the event of “homeland defense activity” under Title 32 authority, according to a 2013 Congressional Research Report.

What role do states play in this? Can they say no?

Border states can fund and send their own National Guard troops to secure their borders, though historically many have requested Title 32 efforts so that the federal government picks up the tab.

They can also refuse to send troops, as former Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, R-Calif., did in 2006 when Bush requested that California more than double the number of National Guard personnel deployed to the border.

Why does Trump want to send troops to the border now?

On Easter, the president started tweeting about dangerous “caravans” of migrants careening through Mexico toward the U.S. The group he referred to was actually a planned, annual procession of migrants fleeing violence in Central America organized by a group called Pueblo Sin Fronteras. Some of the migrants planned to seek asylum in the U.S. as they were fleeing extreme violence in their home countries — and they would have been stopped or apprehended at the border accordingly, immigration experts said.

The president said this was a dangerous situation, and blamed Democrats in Congress for not passing stricter immigration laws and funding his demands for a border wall. Later, he said he’d use the military to protect the border.

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Germany election: Angela Merkel’s party has been castigated in the polls – and CDU activists are not happy | World News

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It has not been a great election for Angela Merkel’s own party, the CDU.

Its candidate Armin Lashert was castigated in the polls, caught on camera laughing as the country’s president made a speech after the country’s devastating floods.

But they had hoped for better, especially after a rally in the polls in the final leg of this contest. They were gathering from early evening in bar R 23 buying drinks hoping to have something to celebrate.

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CDU leader Laschet ‘not happy’ with Germany exit polls

As exit polls and official projections predicted a tie between them and rivals, the SPD, there was a palpable sense of deflation.

Sandra Khalatbari, candidate for the Berlin parliament told Sky News they weren’t the figures she’d hoped for.

“It is disappointing,” she said.

“In the last one-and-a-half weeks we were raising our votes and we were very hopeful that it’s going to be successful but now it is kind of disappointing.”

Sandra Khalatbari called the figures 'disappointing'
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Sandra Khalatbari called the figures ‘disappointing’

The right of centre CDU, Merkel’s party, should have done better. Its chancellor has completed 16 years in power and is one of the most popular politicians in German history. Yet her party has not been rewarded by voters.

There was some consolation in the party’s recovery from its meltdown early on, but campaigner Martin Feldmann told Sky News, only outright victory is what counts.

“The numbers in the past few weeks were disturbing – now it’s about 25%.

“This is okay but only because of the numbers in the past few weeks. What we want is to be number one. At the moment we are not and I’m not happy about this.”

As CDU activists took consolation in large servings of German lager, the period of reflection was already beginning. For some, the problem was the candidate or how voters perceived him on the doorstep.

Regional party organiser Christophe Lehmann told Sky News the problem was the candidate.

He said: “We had to drive against the wind.”

Cordula Kollotschek
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Cordula Kollotschek says Mr Laschert doesn’t have ‘charisma’

“Because many people didn’t understand why we picked Laschet. Voters were not convinced.”

Former member of Berlin parliament Cordula Kollotschek told Sky News, Laschet is not political box office but that wasn’t the only problem.

“He has not the charisma, he’s not really a star, he is not really good looking in the media – that’s really important in a time like now but also I don’t think we have the answer especially for young people for things like climate change.”

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A look back at Angela Merkel’s 16-year career

On the bar television, coverage continued in almost funereal tones. German political coverage is serious and sombre. Most had drifted away from the screen though, to drink outside on a balmy late summer evening, or head off home.

It’s a longer game now.

Whoever clinches the biggest share of Bundestag seats, haggling and horse-trading starts to form a coalition and with everything so close – that may take a while.

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La Palma: Residents in limbo as pressure in the Cumbre Vieja volcano drops – but eruption threat remains | World News

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Thousands of people have been forced to leave their homes to escape rivers of lava cascading from La Palma’s erupting volcano.

But 160 of them will now be allowed to return, after local authorities said their houses were no longer in the path of the molten streams moving down the side of the Cumbre Vieja volcano range.

The rest of the evacuees will have to wait, including Eliza Gonzales.

Eliza Gonzales with her dog, Luna
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Eliza Gonzales has been separated from her dog Luna

I met her at an improvised animal sanctuary on the island. She had come to see her dog Luna. They’ve been separated for days.

Ms Gonzales was told she had to leave Luna behind when she fled her home.

Thankfully the rescue centre called to tell her they had saved Luna. But the reunion is bittersweet. Ms Gonzales is staying in temporary accommodation and no dogs are allowed.

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What’s next for La Palma?

“It’s very bad,” she says.

Luna will be fostered while Ms Gonzales waits to go back home.

“I’m happy there are good people that offered their houses for the dogs to stay in and be calm.”

There are several dogs at the sanctuary, waiting for their owners to come for them. They all bark whenever someone new arrives.

But the centre can only care for abandoned animals. Those who were badly injured during the eruption have to be taken for specialist care.

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Volcano eruptions ‘could last for months’

They rescued a goat whose udders were severely burnt and took it to the vet, hoping it can recover from its wounds.

Scientists say the pressure inside the volcano has decreased, but that doesn’t mean the eruptions are about to stop.

The experts can’t predict when the explosions of lava will end, they think it could last till December.

With each day that passes, people are becoming more desperate.

Volcanic dust is damaging the 'plátano' skin leaving farmers including Mr de Paz Perez fearing they won't be able to sell their produce to supermarkets.
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Volcanic dust is damaging plátano skins, leaving farmers including Mr de Paz Perez fearing they won’t be able to sell their produce

Ernesto de Paz Perez is a banana farmer. The plant is known as “plátano” here, they are slightly smaller than bananas from Latin America.

Mr de Paz Perez, 75, started working on a plátano farm when he was 14.

La Palma depends on the fruit for around half of its economic output.

Banana farmer Ernesto de Paz Perez fears there will be 'many losses' due to the damage caused by the eruption.
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Banana farmer Ernesto de Paz Perez fears there will be ‘many losses’ due to the damage

But the volcanic dust is damaging the fruit’s skin and farmers fear they won’t be able to sell their produce to supermarkets.

The eruption has also cut off the water supply to Mr de Paz Perez’s plants.

If it [the eruption] keeps going for a long time it will cause a lot of damage. If the plátano fields are not watered we will lose them. There will be many losses,” he said.

Elsewhere on the island they’re trying to get back to normal. The airport is open after closing because of an ash cloud, but flights haven’t immediately resumed.

The whole of La Palma just wants to repair and return to how their lives were before the volcano erupted, but when that will be, no one knows.

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Lewis Hamilton hails ‘magical moment’ as he wins 100th Formula One race | UK News

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Lewis Hamilton has spoken of the “magical moment” of winning his 100th Formula One race at Sunday’s Russian Grand Prix.

Hamilton, 36, used his driving and overtaking skills, and his strategic thinking in the rain, to fight back from seventh place on the first lap to a landmark victory.

He is the first driver to reach 100 victories.

It was his fifth win of the season and his first since the British Grand Prix in July.

“It’s taken a long time to get to 100 and at times, I wasn’t sure it would come,” the British driver said.

“It is a magical moment. I could only have dreamed of still being here, to have this opportunity to win these races, and to drive with such phenomenal talents this late on in my career.”

“I am so proud of everything we have done with Mercedes, on and off the track, and this is a special moment for everyone that has been part of it.

“My dad called me last night and he has always been that one to reassure me and to continue to support me. I feel incredibly grateful for the amazing support that I have had.”

The victory takes Hamilton two points clear of Max Verstappen in the title race with seven rounds to go.

It also denied Lando Norris of his first victory following a thrilling finale.

Norris, 21, appeared on course to keep Hamilton at bay, and become the youngest British Formula One winner.

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