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The secret for extra fluffy pancakes

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I’m the kind of gal that likes both sweet and savory breakfasts, which means that my diner order generally includes both the eggs, bacon, and toast, plus a pancake for good measure.

If I’m dining with friends, I always try to convince someone to share. “I’ll get the corned-beef hash, you get the French toast,” I suggest, making sure there is a bread-y reason for using some maple syrup.

Which is to say, when I was asked to figure out how to make fluffy pancakes like they make in diners for Epicurious’ collection of “Cook Like a Diner” stories, I was game.

So what makes a good diner pancake? First up, they are big. Plate-size. And buttery, sure. But mostly, they are fluffy. After talking to a few diner chefs and eating lots of different plates of pancakes, I figured out the best way to make fluffy pancakes — and it involves a special secret ingredient.

Add extra air with seltzer water

According to chef John Koutsouris, who runs the grill at The Greeks diner in Kearny, NJ (where several of my Epi pals tasted those lightweight pancakes firsthand), seltzer water is the key to the signature fluff of his pancakes.

Koutsouris used to add milk, eggs, a pinch of salt, cinnamon, and water to a packaged mix for his pancakes. But about 7 years ago, he tried swapping the water out for seltzer. “Water is flat and seltzer is airy, so I figured the bubbles would give them a lighter, fluffier feeling, and it worked,” he explains.

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Pouring seltzer into pancake batter infuses it with tiny bubbles of air, and produces a “noticeably more fluffy” pancake, according to taste-testers.

 (iStock)

No surprise here: Koutsouris’ strategy checks out. In a taste test of seltzer pancakes versus plain-water pancakes, the seltzer pancakes were noticeably more fluffy. Just like using seltzer water in tempura batter makes a light and airy batter, adding seltzer into the pancake mix infuses tiny bubbles of air into the batter, which expand when heated. (Pro tip: Make sure to keep the water cold, as there are more bubbles in cold seltzer than room-temperature.)

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Add more flour for extra body

With this intel, putting together a diner-style pancake recipe wasn’t hard. I started with my favorite thin pancake recipe — food director Rhoda Boone’s buttermilk pancakes — and I swapped in some seltzer water for a portion of the buttermilk, then added a little more flour to give Rhoda’s thin and crispy pancakes a little extra body to showcase those bubbles and help them rise in height as they cook.

Use a griddle to cook your pancakes

At every diner, pancakes are cooked on a super-hot griddle, giving them a nicely browned crust and a quick rise in height. You can’t install a diner-style griddle in your home kitchen, but a two-burner griddle allows you to turn your stovetop into a diner-style cooking surface, and cook more pancakes faster than you could in a single skillet. If you don’t have a griddle, a cast-iron skillet is your next best choice for the best pancakes crust.

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If you don’t own a two-burner griddle apparatus, a heavy iron skillet is your next best bet.

 (iStock)

Pour them out by the 1/2 cup

For true diner-style seltzer pancakes, you want them to be as big as your plate, which means you have to pour out 1/2 cup of batter onto your griddle for each pancake. If you want smaller pancakes (which are easier to flip) you can use a 1/4 cup measure instead to pour them out. At The Greeks, Koutsouris makes dozens of pancakes in the course of a busy Saturday, but for a group of four friends (or family), eight pancakes should do it, so I’ve designed my recipe to make eight plate-size pancakes.

Think beyond maple syrup

Before you douse these cloud-like confections in maple syrup, you might want to try doing what Katsouris does: Try a dollop of strawberry jam on top of your stack. Or consider a fruit compote or maybe even a chocolate sauce. There’s only one way to make fluffy pancakes, but there are lots of ways to top them.

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Hillary Clinton: ‘fun to watch FOX when it’s someone else being blitzed’

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Jason Decrow / AP

Former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton is interviewed during a gala at the Metropolitan Museum of Art on Dec. 4, 2013, in New York.

Step aside, Jon Stewart. There’s a new political satirist in town.

Hillary Clinton, the former secretary of state and a potential Democratic presidential candidate, took an apparent shot at Fox News during the Super Bowl on Sunday.

The tweet, which had been retweeted more than 30,000 times by the start of the game’s fourth quarter, was apparently a reference to the cable news channel’s coverage, which has been highly critical of Democrats and the September 2012 terror attack on the American consulate in Benghazi, Libya. Clinton has come under fire for the State Department response to the attack.

The Fox broadcast network — which aired the Super Bowl — and the Fox News Channel are both owned by the Fox Entertainment Group subsidiary of 21st Century Fox, a division of News Corp.



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Racial discrimination in teen years could mean health problems later

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Racial discrimination isn’t just a civil rights issue — it can also affect teenagers’ health, a new study suggests.

Adolescents who experienced frequent racial discrimination without emotional support from parents and peers had higher levels of blood pressure, a higher body mass index, and higher levels of stress-related hormones at age 20, placing them at greater risk for chronic disease as they get older.

While other studies have looked at perceived racial discrimination and health among adults, this study, published Monday in the journal Child Development, is the first of its type to track the effects in youth. The good news: Teens who did receive emotional support didn’t show the biological effects of racial discrimination.

Researchers wanted to look at the relationship between racial discrimination and what scientists call allostatic load, basically the “wear and tear” on the body over time caused by frequent and repeated stressors. Frequent activation of the body’s stress response causes a cascade of problems including high blood pressure, cardiac disease, stroke and increases in the body’s inflammatory response. The researchers also wanted to determine whether parental and peer support would help mediate that stress, leading to potentially better health outcomes. 

The study involved 331 African Americans, all of whom lived in the rural South, who were asked to rate the frequency of perceived discrimination at ages 16, 17 and 18. These discriminatory events included racially based slurs and insults, disrespectful treatment from community members, physical threats, and false accusations from business employees or law enforcement officials.

When the adolescents turned 18, the youths were asked to assess their peer emotional support during these years. Caregivers, too, were surveyed regarding the emotional support they provided, with questions including “If my child talks to me I have suggestions about how to handle problems,” and “If my child needs help with school or work, she/he can ask me about it.”

Blood pressure, body mass and stress-related hormones were assessed when youths turned 20. The researchers controlled for variables including low economic status, depression, or unhealthy behaviors such as drug use, for example, all of which can affect health.

Although many African Americans, as well as other minorities, experience discrimination as a stressor, only a small percentage show increases in the biological havoc that stress can cause.

“People ask why is that, and one reason we’ve shown is that it’s due to emotional support, which is important at all times in life, but especially during adolescence,’ says lead investigator Gene Brody, Regents Professor and Director of the Center for Family Research at University of Georgia. “These kinds of relationships can be a protective barrier from stress-changing biology.”

In recent years, racial discrimination as a stressor affecting biology has been the subject of numerous studies, mostly involving adults, says David Williams, a professor of public health at the Harvard School of Public Health. Other research has shown that racial discrimination and resulting health problems are a global phenomenon.

“It is not just an African-American problem, it is a universal problem, affecting the health of disadvantaged populations across the world,” adds Williams, the developer of “The Everyday Discrimination Scale,” which is widely used to assess perceived discrimination. “When a person’s sense of human dignity is violated, there are physiological consequences.”

Although the study does have some limitations since researchers still must determine the mechanism by which parental or peer involvement actually worked in reducing the stress response, it challenges researchers to explain “the how” of their findings, says Megan Gunnar, Regents Professor and Distinguished McKnight University Professor, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota.

“While we are working out the how this comes about in the body, this study provides us with rich targets for increasing resilience in youth and, as if we needed them, more arguments for working to reduce racism and discrimination in our society.”

For caregivers the message is simple. “Just sitting with them, gauging how they are doing is not race specific, it is important across all races, and can have a powerful effect in buffering the effects of discrimination,” says Brody. 

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Child, 4, dies after being pulled from Norwegian Cruise pool

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Richard Drew / AP

People pause to look at the Norwegian Breakaway on the Hudson River in New York in May 2013. A 4-year-old child died after being pulled unresponsive from a swimming pool on the Norwegian Breakaway on Feb. 3, 2014.

A 4-year-old child died after being pulled unresponsive from a swimming pool on a Norwegian Cruise Line ship off the coast of North Carolina on Monday, cruise line and Coast Guard officials said.

Crew members were able to revive a 6-year-old boy also found in the pool. He was airlifted to a hospital, where his condition was unknown.

The two children were found in the morning on the Norwegian Breakaway, the cruise line said in an announcement on its Facebook page. The statement did not give the ages of the children, but Coast Guard Petty Officer Adam SanSoucie said they were 4 and 6.

An emergency medical team on the ship gave both children CPR, but the younger child died, the cruise line’s statement said. The older child, a boy, was airlifted with his grandmother and a nurse to a hospital, the company said. It did not identify the gender of the younger child.

SanSoucie said the boy was taken by Marine rescue helicopter to Carteret General Hospital in Morehead City, N.C. The boy was then transferred to Vidant Medical Center in Greenville. A spokeswoman there didn’t immediately return a phone call Tuesday. 

“We extend our deepest sympathies to the family during this extremely difficult time and are providing full assistance and support,” the cruise line said in its Facebook statement. “The family is in our thoughts and prayers and we ask that you please keep them in your thoughts and prayers as well.”

The 4,000-passenger ship was bound for Florida. The Norwegian Cruise Line website describes the Norwegian Breakaway as the “newest and largest ship embarking from NYC” to winter destinations including the southern Caribbean, Bahamas and Florida.

— The Associated Press

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