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When presidents have been subpoenaed, here’s what they’ve done

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Here’s what’s happened when past presidents have been subpoenaed:

— Jefferson declined to comply but ultimately produced some material in the treason trial of his former vice president, Aaron Burr.

— Nixon resigned and the issue went away.

— The Clinton subpoena was withdrawn when he agreed to testify voluntarily.

The Supreme Court has never directly addressed whether a president can refuse to cooperate in a criminal investigation potentially involving his own conduct. That’s because no president has ever fought such a request.

But in two other cases, the court has suggested that there’s no authority for the president to decline.

Nixon failed when he tried to shield his White House tapes from the Watergate prosecutor who wanted them as evidence in charging presidential aides with crimes related to the scandal. The court rejected Nixon’s claim that the recordings were protected by executive privilege.

“The president’s generalized assertion of privilege must yield to the demonstrated, specific need for evidence in a pending criminal trial and the fundamental demands of due process of law in the fair administration of criminal justice,” the court said in 1974.

Twenty-three years later, the Supreme Court ruled that Clinton was not immune from a lawsuit filed by Paula Jones, who accused him of sexual harassment. It is settled law, the court said, “that the president is subject to judicial process in appropriate circumstances.”

While that ruling involved a civil case, the court said the need for evidence in a prosecution is even greater.

“We have made clear,” the court said, “that in a criminal case the powerful interest in the ‘fair administration of criminal justice’ requires that the evidence be given under appropriate circumstances lest the ‘very integrity of the judicial system’ be eroded.”

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Brexit POLL: Should Boris punish EU if France plunders UK's financial services? VOTE

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FRANCE has gloated that Brexit has driven thousands of jobs and billions of pounds in assets away from Britain – but should Boris Johnson punish the European Union if France plunders the UK’s financial services?

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Biden to sign executive orders on Covid vaccinations, pandemic response on 2nd day

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WASHINGTON — On his second day in office, President Joe Biden will sign 10 executive orders to ramp up Covid-19 vaccinations, expand testing and reopen schools as he outlines a detailed plan to tackle the pandemic.

The new administration will increase the number of vaccination sites by creating federal community vaccination centers in stadiums, gymnasiums and conference centers staffed with thousands of additional workers, some of them from federal agencies and the military, as well as first responders.

Biden’s plan also looks for ways to speed vaccine production, including using the Defense Production Act, shoring up the supply chain and releasing more of the federal government’s reserves. Biden will encourage all states to start vaccinating people 65 and older, along with certain essential workers, including teachers and grocery store employees.

Biden has set an ambitious goal of giving 100 million shots in 100 days — picking up the pace from the 17 million shots the Trump administration recorded in a little over a month. Administration officials think they have the supply and resources to meet the goal, but they said they will need funding from Congress to expand vaccinations to the wider population, increase testing and help schools reopen. Biden is asking for more than $400 million for the pandemic response as part of a $1.9 trillion stimulus package.

“While we will urgently execute the strategy, we do need Congress to act — and act quickly. Congress must provide the necessary funding in the Covid relief package, the American Rescue Plan, that the president will soon be sending them,” Jeffrey Zients, Biden’s Covid-19 response coordinator, said in a call with reporters.

Biden also plans to sign an executive order Thursday to require people to wear masks in airports and on airplanes, trains and maritime vessels and to mandate that international travelers have tested negative for Covid-19 before they depart for the U.S.

Biden’s coronavirus team said that because of a lack of information-sharing by the Trump administration during the transition, it is only beginning to get its arms around the state of the vaccination program. Officials have just begun to evaluate the supply and production schedule to figure out how much vaccine they can release while being able to ensure enough is left for people to get their second doses, Zients said.

Biden has said he wants the majority of K-8 schools to open in his first 100 days. To help make that happen, he will sign a presidential memorandum reimbursing schools for additional cleaning, protective equipment and other costs associated with getting students back to the classroom using disaster relief funds from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It will also direct his administration to develop new reopening guidelines.

Biden will also direct agencies to use their powers, including the Defense Production Act, to accelerate production of items in short supply, and he will direct FEMA to increase the federal reimbursement from 75 percent to 100 percent of the cost for National Guard, personnel and emergency supplies needed to create vaccination centers.

The administration said it will begin holding regular public briefings led by scientists and increase the amount of data being shared publicly, including metrics around race, the capacity of the health care system and vaccine supplies.

“The federal government should be the source of truth to the public to get clear, accessible and scientifically accurate information about Covid-19,” Zients said. “We will be honest, transparent and straightforward with the American people to rebuild that trust.”

Biden issued more than a dozen executive orders and memorandums in his first hours in office Wednesday, undoing many of the hallmarks of President Donald Trump’s tenure and beginning to make his own mark on how the U.S. will respond to its multiple crises. Aides have said more executive actions are expected in the coming days and weeks.

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Priti Patel: Why didn't the UK shut its borders back in March?

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HOME SECRETARY Priti Patel has found herself at the centre of yet another Downing Street PR storm following her claims she advocated for closing the borders to the UK when the coronavirus pandemic first hit last year. Why didn’t the UK shut its borders back in March?

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