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Chemical attacks in Syria: A deadly history



By Ajay Nair, News Reporter

After a suspected chemical attack in which at least 70 Syrians were killed, we take a look back at allegations of previous chemical attacks made against the Assad regime.

Syria chemical attack

At least 70 dead after alleged chemical attack in Syria

:: 23 December 2012: First allegation of using chemical weapons
Seven people are killed in Homs, allegedly by a poisonous gas used by Syrian forces. Symptoms reportedly include blurred vision, nausea, relaxed muscles and breathing difficulties.

:: 19 March 2013: Dozens killed in alleged attack
A reported 25 people are killed and dozens injured after an alleged chemical weapons attacks in Khan al Assel in Aleppo and al Atebeh in Damascus. The Assad regime claimed opposition forces used chemical weapons in the fighting in those areas.

:: 24 March 2013: ‘Rocket launcher attack kills two’
Opposition activists claim Assad’s troops used chemical weapons from several rocket launchers in Adra which killed two people and injured more than 20. According to the Arms Control Association, doctors said the weapons used were phosphorus bombs, which affect the nervous system.

:: 21 August 2013: Hundreds killed in ‘gas attacks’
More than 1,400 people are allegedly killed in sarin gas attacks in eastern and western Ghouta following a Syrian offensive – 426 children are among the dead.

More than a thousand people were killed in 2013
More than a thousand people were killed in the alleged 2013 chemical attack

:: 21 April 2014: Chlorine attack
Three people are reported to have been killed and 133 injured in a suspected chlorine attack in the village of Talmenes, Idlib.

:: 16 March 2015: Further deaths despite UN condemnation
Six people are killed in a suspected chlorine attack in Sarmin, Idlib, days after the UN Security Council condemns any use of the chemical as a weapon. Activists claimed three children were among those killed when an aircraft dropped barrel bombs filled with the chemical. The Syrian military denied the claims.

:: 2 August 2016: Suffocation reported
Two dozen cases of suffocation are reported by the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights in rebel-held Saraqeb, near Aleppo.

:: 10 August 2016: Claims of further chlorine gas use
Hospital officials in Syria report the use of chlorine gas in another chemical weapons attack in Aleppo.

:: 3 March 2017: Probe launched into toxic gas attacks
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) says it is looking into allegations of eight toxic gas attacks in Syria since the start of the year. Syria continues to deny any responsibility.

:: 30 March 2017: ‘Sarin gas’ attack
Fifty people are injured in an attack in the south of Ltamenah. The OPCW suspects sarin gas was used in the attack.

:: 4 April 2017: Rebel-held town targeted
At least 74 people are killed and 300 injured in a suspected sarin gas attack in the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhoun, Idlib. The OPCW later confirms the use of sarin gas.

Hundreds were injured in the suspected sarin gas attack
Hundreds were injured in the April 2017 attack

:: 13 January 2018: Attack on Douma
Six people, including women and children, are injured following an alleged chlorine gas attack in Douma, eastern Ghouta.

:: 22 January 2018: Douma targeted again
Another alleged chlorine gas attack in Douma, which injures another 21 people, including women and children.

Children are among the dead and injured

‘Big price to pay’: Trump warns countries backing ‘animal’ Syrian leader Bashar al Assad

:: 1 February 2018: Fatalities in further attack
A third alleged chlorine gas attack in Douma claims the lives of three people.

:: 26 February 2018: Child dies in Douma
A child dies and a further 13 people suffer breathing difficulties after another suspected chemical attack in Douma.

:: 7 March 2018: 29 injured in eastern Ghouta
Saqba, in eastern Ghouta, sees a suspected chlorine attack, which injures 29 people, mostly children, according to reports.

:: 7 April 2018: Dozens killed and hundreds injured
At least 70 people are killed and at least 500 injured in a suspected chemical attack in Douma.

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St Vincent volcano: Around 16,000 people flee communities after eruption of La Soufriere | World News



About 16,000 people have had to flee their ash-covered communities after a volcano erupted on the Caribbean island of St Vincent.

The eruption of La Soufriere on Friday has transformed the island’s usual lush towns and villages into a gloomy, grey landscape.

It was the 4,000-ft volcano’s first major eruption since 1979.

Thousands have had to flee their homes since the eruption
Thousands have had to flee their homes since the eruption

Thousands of residents have had to evacuate their homes and seek shelter with as many belongings as they could stuffed into suitcases and backpacks.

It comes after a strong sulphur smell was unavoidable on Saturday as ash blanketed large parts of the island.

There have been no reports of anyone being killed or injured by the initial blast or those that followed.

The volcano erupted on Friday
The volcano erupted on Friday
Roads on the island are covered in ash
Roads on the island are covered in ash

The had government ordered people to evacuate the most high-risk area around the volcano before the eruption after scientists warned that magma was moving close to the surface.

Government authorities delivered water, food and supplies to the shelters where many had fled to.

The island’s international airport remained blanketed in ash and smoke on Saturday making the runway barely visible.

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Western Australian towns evacuated after tropical cyclone barrels down with 100mph winds | World News



A tropical cyclone has hit the western coast of Australia with winds of more than 100mph (170km) and much of the area put on “red alert”.

A spokesman for the Bureau of Meteorology, Todd Smith, said cyclone Seroja was now at category two but had reached “category three cyclone intensity” with damaging winds which would continue into the night.

Emergency services opened shelters in preparation for the high winds and coastal flooding.

The Department of Fire and Emergency Services (DFES) said in a bulletin: “There is a possible threat to lives and homes.

A police officer stands amid the rubble of buildings during a search for victims at a flood-affected village in Ile Ape on Lembata Island, East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia, Thursday, April 8, 2021. Multiple disasters triggered by Tropical Cyclone Seroja in eastern Indonesia and neighboring East Timor have left a number of people dead or missing. (AP Photo/Ricko Wawo)
Tropical Cyclone Seroja caused a severe downpour in Indonesia a week ago, killing at least 174 people and leaving 48 still missing

“You need to take action and get ready to shelter.”

The DFES has so far put five coastal towns on “red alert”.

Some towns north of Perth were evacuated while sandbags were being made available to residents further down the coast.

A category three classification can see wind speeds of up to 170mph (224km).

After touching down on the north western town of Geraldton (124 miles/200km north of Perth) and dumping more than 10cm of rain in just two hours, tropical cyclone Seroja headed inland, lessening slightly in intensity.

However, officials were still braced for a “high degree of damage” to buildings in the area.

A spokesman for the Western Australia emergency services department explained that buildings were not constructed to withstand such strong winds in a region as it typically too far south to fall into the path of cyclones.

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Russia: Inside the Kremlin’s military build-up along the Ukraine border | World News



At the Maslovka railway station just south of the Russian city of Voronezh, there’s a small military camp, a few trucks and a tent.

The clearing in front is rutted thanks to the steady unloading of military equipment in recent weeks.

A soldier recognises us from the day before.

“Hello spies,” he said.

Rutted ground at the railway station at Maslovka, near Voronezh
The unloading of equipment at the railway station has left the ground rutted

Russia’s military build-up in Crimea and along the border with Ukraine has hardly been subtle.

It has coincided with the breakdown of the latest ceasefire in the simmering conflict between Ukraine and Russian-backed separatists in eastern Ukraine.

More and more videos have appeared on social media of Russian troop movements – artillery convoys along the bridge connecting Russia with Crimea; trains loaded with weaponry coming from as far east as Siberia.

These sightings from ordinary Russians alongside warnings from Ukrainian generals preceded the Russian military’s announcement of exercises in the region and sent alarm bells ringing across Western capitals.

The kit unloaded at Maslovka is headed to a nearby training ground, which has been turned into a huge military field camp.

Magnay submitted - field camp near Voronezh
Russian forces have created a military field camp near the city of Voronezh

It stretches for around a mile and a half and backs right onto a neighbourhood of dachas, the weekend homes of mostly Voronezh city-folk who tell us the build-up began in late March.

We accidentally drive right in, though the soldiers make no effort to come after us.

There are a large number of military trucks, row after row of tents, troops milling about.

The sign at the entrance is one that most Russian conscripts remember from military service – “Difficult on exercise, easier in the fight”.

The site was first identified through open source methods by the Conflict Intelligence Team (CIT) in Moscow.

“It looks more like preparing for an offensive operation, not just to protect our land,” CIT’s Ruslan Leviev told us in Moscow.

But he does not believe it’s a prelude to war.

“It looks like a show of force to put pressure on the Ukrainian government, to show your posture on the international stage, to show your position to the new American administration.”

field camp near Voronezh
The military build-up has hardly been subtle

Locals pottering around their dachas hardly spare a thought for the military build-up next door.

“If Zelensky (the Ukrainian president) isn’t a fool, then nothing will happen. If he is a fool, anything could happen,” said Nina, a pensioner who we meet watering her garden.

“‘Anyway, it’s not him who decides things, it’s the Americans.”

She does not want to give her surname.

“I hope I haven’t revealed any military secrets,” she added.

“There are always exercises here, every summer,” said Yuri, a local guard.

“Stop all this talk of war.”

But there are not exercises on this scale.

Neither here nor elsewhere along Russia’s border with Ukraine.

field camp near Voronezh
Western calls to de-escalate the situation appear to have been ignored

Not since the annexation of Crimea has Russia beefed up its presence there to this extent, re-deploying an air brigade from near the Estonian border and sending 10 naval vessels from the Caspian to reinforce the Black Sea fleet.

In response, the US has announced it will send two warships into the Black Sea.

The German chancellor asked Vladimir Putin this week to wind down the military build-up.

This Sunday after consultations with his US counterpart, Britain’s Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab tweeted the same.

It does not appear to be happening.

The Russian position is clear. What happens on Russian soil is Russia’s business.

It is hard to argue with that.

But ostentatious muscle-flexing around Ukraine is not an option for the West to ignore – the stakes are too high, they are for all involved.

Ukraine’s leader Volodymyr Zelensky may clamour for fast-track NATO membership but he will not get it.

For all their loud protestations over NATO’s possible eastward-creep, the Kremlin knows that.

US President Joe Biden may declare his unwavering support for Ukraine’s territorial sovereignty and integrity but he will be wary of walking anywhere near potential conflict with Russia.

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Ukraine president visits Donbas region amid tensions

And surrounded as he is by Russian forces, president Zelensky knows re-taking the country’s eastern Donbas region, parts of which are held by separatists, is wishful thinking as is any large-scale fight with his powerful neighbour to the East.

It is of course hard to know what Russia is playing at but they seem to be eyeing the long game.

Coercive diplomacy to extract concessions in negotiations on Donbas, a powerful display of military muscle for the new US administration to take note of while the de facto annexation of the separatist regions of Ukraine chugs along apace.

field camp near Voronezh
Russia seem to be eyeing the long game

According to Russian state news agency Ria Novosti, 420,000 people in the Donetsk and Luhansk people’s republics have already received Russian passports.

Russia is aiming for one million by parliamentary elections this September.

“It’s unifying their legislation with the Russian one, it’s providing them with the Russian vaccine, it’s providing them with passports. It doesn’t mean Russia wants to annex them,” said Maxim Samorukov from the Moscow Carnegie Institute.

“At least in the near future,” he added.

It also provides quite the justification for full-scale intervention should Russia’s calculus change.

field camp near Voronezh
The Kremlin is sending a message to Ukraine and the wider international community

President Putin has said allowing Ukrainian troops along Russia’s border with the separatist regions could lead to a Srebrenica-type massacre – the 1995 genocide of more than 8,000 Bosnian Muslims by Bosnian Serb forces.

Dmitry Kozak, Russia’s representative in negotiations on Ukraine, has threatened that a Ukrainian assault on Donbas would be a ‘”self-inflicted gunshot wound in the foot and to the head”.

“If the Srebrenica massacre takes place there, we will have to stand up for their defence,” he said.

Sharp rhetoric to match an aggressive display of military might.

All in the interests of deterrence? Perhaps.

But also an indication that eight years of sanctions has hardly served to deter Russia from at the very least flexing its muscles, if not more.

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